The Current Situatons of Jamicans in the British Labour Market

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The Population and Housing Census revealed that There was no significant impact on health care due to this internal migration pattern. The utilization of the public health service remained high, with no increase in support systems, such as staff and diagnostic and therapeutic care. The performance of the Regional Health Authorities was measured i against Service Level Agreements signed with the Ministry of Health 9 , and ii utilizing a client complaint mechanism The Ministry of Health continued to develop supportive legislation and policies based on a priority agenda.

The country continues to move toward universal health, with a focus on health system strengthening and improved access to services. The no-user-fee policy, introduced in , had reversed the policy of fees for hospital care. In , the Ministry of Health instructed all hospitals to reestablish billing mechanisms for those enrolled in health insurance schemes The Ministry of Health priority programs and projects were guided by Vision , with implementation of sequential, three-year, socioeconomic policy medium-term frameworks MTFs and a robust monitoring and evaluation framework.

The EU PROMAC project aimed to reduce mortality in children under age 5 by equipping neonatal intensive care units in regional hospitals, training specialized health staff, and procuring ambulances. The program also assisted in refurbishing and improving infrastructure of selected health facilities 9, The total fertility rate declined from 4. Of the 40, new acceptors of contraception in , most The maternal mortality ratio was The main risk factors identified included anemia, hypertension, sickle cell disease, uterine fibroids, multiparity, and cardiac disease.

The mortality rate for infants children under 1 year old was The infant mortality rate has continued to decrease, from 62 per 1, live births in The Southern Region had the highest overall coverage for vaccines. No vaccines have been introduced into the routine schedule since , but there are plans to introduce the human papilloma HPV vaccine in the future.

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Maintenance of the elimination of measles, rubella, congenital rubella syndrome CRS , and polio remain a priority for the Ministry of Health. Children under 10 years old accounted for The main health issues affecting this group were injuries, violence, mental health, and sexual and reproductive health. In , HIV prevalence among girls and boys aged years was estimated to be 0. For adolescent girls and boys aged years, the prevalence was 0. The main contributing factors to adolescent pregnancy in Jamaica are the early age of sexual debut, the low use of contraceptives by sexually active adolescents, and coerced sex.

In , the birth rate per 1, women aged years was 72, compared to 16 for the general population. Diseases of the circulatory system claimed 6, lives in , with Cerebrovascular disease, hypertensive disease, and diabetes mellitus were among the five leading causes of deaths for both males and females over 5 years old. In , most cancer deaths in men were from cancer of the prostate ; for women, most cancer deaths were due to cancers of the breast and the cervix uteri 2.

For children under 5 years old, respiratory and cardiovascular disorders specific to the perinatal period was the leading cause of death for the period. In terms of vaccine-preventable diseases , the last cases of indigenous transmission of measles, CRS, and rubella were in , , and , respectively, with certification of elimination received in July The last reported case of polio was in The most common malignant neoplasms in children 0 to 14 years old were leukemia and malignant neoplasms of the central nervous system.

For adult males, the leading form of cancer was prostrate, and for women it was cancers of the breast and cervix In , for those 18 years and older, the age-standardized estimate for diabetes was 9. Levels of diabetes were expected to increase because, based on current estimates, levels of overweight and obesity remain high. According to a study, the prevalence of asthma in Jamaican children is high. Of the 2 to 17 year olds surveyed, Asthma was more common in males than in females Hypertension was one of the most common NCDs in Jamaicans. Levels of overweight and obesity were high in Jamaica, and more prevalent in women than men.

The prevalence of obesity in children ages 13 15 years old was 5. Accidents unintentional injuries accounted for 45, visits to the emergency departments at public hospitals in The top three types of violence-related injuries were blunt injury The age-standardized prevalence of current tobacco smoking in the population over age 15 was Prevalence in adolescents was Current smokeless tobacco use was 8.

For the population 15 years and older, the age-standardized prevalence of alcohol use disorders was 6. Prevalence of insufficient physical activity in adults 18 years and over was The year Health Sector Development Plan will specifically detail the strategies and actions to meet priorities based on international, regional, and national imperatives.

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Jamaica continued to face a triple burden of NCDs, violence and injuries, and emerging and reemerging infectious diseases. The predicted increase in the frequency of outbreaks of infectious diseases requires reinforcement of the health emergencies program in the Ministry of Health, including the implementation of the International Health Regulations.

Major challenges to reducing the prevalence of NCDs and premature mortality include an inadequate regulatory framework to address the reduction of the main risk factors and to create the supportive environment for behavior change. Other challenges are the global economic conditions that lead to increased cost of service delivery, including for essential medicines and technologies, and the cost of reforming the workforce.

Universal health remains a priority to ensure that the population is able to access i quality care at upgraded facilities, by trained staff with the appropriate mix of skills, ii required levels of equipment, pharmaceuticals, and supplies, and iii the requisite financial protection. Increased public interaction with the health sector, including through social media, provides an opportunity to build the engagement of individuals and communities in support of priority health sector programs.

Table of Contents

Restructuring technical services to ensure appropriate service delivery and accountability will be required, with a focus on strong public health leadership, and the development of time-sensitive health information technology, including linked, interactive databases that feed into international, regional, and national indicators.

This will ensure evidence-based decision-making, which is critical for monitoring progress toward the SDGs, and the care and health status of the population. Messages about social and other determinants of health should be conveyed so that all Jamaicans can play their part in attaining a high quality of life. Health must be positioned as integral to attaining Vision Statistical Institute of Jamaica.

Annual report Planning Institute of Jamaica. Economic and social survey Jamaica Kingston: PIOJ; Vision Jamaica: national development plan. Bank of Jamaica. Kingston: BOJ; United Nations Development Programme. Human development report work for human development. UNDP; Office of Disaster Preparedness and Emergency Management. International Food Policy Research Institute. Global nutrition report from promise to impact—ending malnutrition by Washington, D.

Jamaica survey of living conditions United Nations Statistics Division. Millennium Development Goals indicators: metadata—gender parity index, Jamaica, Ministry of Health Jamaica. Weekly Epidemiology Bulletin. EW 52, Kingston: MOH: Vitals: a quarterly report of the Ministry of Health: April National surveillance data.

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Kingston: MOH; HIV epidemiological profile: facts and figures. World Health Organization. Global status report on noncommunicable diseases Geneva: WHO; Mental health atlas country profile Jamaica. National Environment and Planning Agency Jamaica.

Environmental and planning laws of Jamaica. Kingston: NEPA; Jamaica Constabulary Force. Kingston: JCF;. Ministry of Transport, Works and Housing Jamaica. Traffic crash report. Kingston: MTWH; West Indian Medical Journal ;63 1 Strategic business plan We all know that the policy has not been met, and if George Osborne is right, no one in all the Cabinets that he served in prior to moving on to other things believed that it was realistic either. What was obvious from the evidence we heard is that we simply do not know with any degree of accuracy the number of people coming in or going out.

That is extraordinary, given that most of us who travel in and out of the country are well used to producing our passports. Someone, usually an airline, knows when you left, and the Immigration Service certainly knows when you come back. It cannot be beyond the wit of this country to try to marry the two up in order to get an accurate picture of who has gone and who is coming back.

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That is particularly important if we really do want to measure what the net migration figure is. I want to concentrate on the section of our report that calls on the Government to consult with business and to develop a strategy for what the labour market needs of this country will be post Brexit. That simply has not yet been done and the clock is ticking away quickly.

What was obvious to us, as it is to anyone who looks at this subject, is that a number of people, particularly from the European Union, work in this country, contribute and pay their taxes. However, it is not only those with degree-level skills in higher paid jobs that we should be concerned about because at the present time an awful lot of jobs requiring lower levels of skills are being done by EU nationals.

Indeed, the evidence we had is that many of those people would simply not qualify under the non-EU scheme that this country currently operates if they were to apply to come to work here. When the Government develop their strategy they have to ask themselves: what does industry need across the piece? If we end up in a situation where after March next year many of these workers cannot come here or they choose to go back—an awful lot of them do go back for perfectly understandable reasons—and are not replaced, many of our industries could find themselves very exposed.

It is not just agriculture, manufacturing and the academic world; all these areas depend to a substantial extent on having an adequate supply of labour from not just this country, but the EU. Dare I say it, having people come from different countries with different backgrounds and skills sometimes enriches the workforce. It adds quite a lot to it because we learn from each other. That is why our recommendation that the Government should consult with business to ask what the skills requirements are is paramount.

We simply cannot introduce the system that currently applies to non-EU nationals, where there are skill-level requirements and quotas, for two reasons. Partly, I do not think the Home Office could cope with it. It has struggled under successive Governments and over many years to try to operate schemes like this.


All of us who have had experience of dealing with them will know that you sometimes get some extraordinary decisions that are very difficult to understand. The second thing is that I find quite extraordinary the idea, particularly coming from a Conservative Government, that the state knows how many people we require, what level of skills are required and that it can adjudicate as and when business requirements change.

Maybe I am being too new Labour here, but I do not think that that is the job of the state and I do not think it can do that. If that really is what is being proposed—I certainly read in the newspaper today, and I presume it is not fake news, that one of the things that was discussed by the Cabinet sub-committee yesterday was simply to transpose the non-EU regime and make it universal for people coming into this country—I can see all sorts of difficulties.

Our economy is growing, but, as we all know, it could be growing an awful lot faster. My belief is that it if we removed the threat of Brexit it would grow significantly faster. This is the last time at which we should be introducing uncertainty for manufacturers, farmers or whatever field as to who they will likely be able to employ in future. This part of our report is one that the Government need to pay heed to given the cross-party nature of the Economic Affairs Committee and the different views on Brexit in that committee.

The Government should draw from that the strong feeling that there needs to be a policy that is coherent and meets the skill requirements of people in this country. I will say two things in conclusion. First, I want to see as many people in this country as possible employed in whatever their chosen field is.