A Goal-Oriented Approach to Forest Landscape Restoration: 16 (World Forests)
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The combined map of potential multifunctional hotspots Fig. Gimona and van der Horst Furthermore, the map facilitates interpretations of where which function enhances or impedes the others according to their location. In turn, areas of highest carbon sequestration potential agriculture appear to be irrelevant for multifunctionality; thus, areas with intermediate carbon sequestration potential have more relevance when considering three functions together. This points toward a facilitation of other functions by carbon sequestration, as is the case for potential habitat function see Fig.
The agriculture-forest interface is the key to achieving global restoration goals
In contrast to carbon sequestration, potential erosion prevention reduces spatial continuity of multifunctional hotspots, as it is the most heterogeneous potential function on a rather small scale according to its strong determination by topography. Analogous to results from ecosystem service studies e. By combining restoration feasibility based on recent historical evidence with areas of high multifunctionality, we demonstrate that both targets can be achieved together and that the aim of restoring multiple functions on a landscape scale does not necessarily need to counteract traditional aims of restoring historical conditions.
However, the designation of restoration areas, their extent, as well as the degree to which functions and feasibilities are fulfilled, is largely determined by the more or less arbitrary selection of thresholds. It must therefore be seen as one of the most critical parts in a concrete planning process. In this study, we used median values as a simple and consistent rule for testing the integration of several targets as used in previous studies targeting multifunctional restoration Gimona and van der Horst Hence, uncertainties regarding the selection of thresholds underpin the general requirement for studies and planning situations of this type 1 to integrate stakeholders, local people, managers, and researchers at the earliest possible stage; 2 to define targets and goals; and 3 to determine to what extent the different targets shall be fulfilled.
The separate approach assessing feasibilities and functions can be a useful basis for scoping and discussion, as different scenarios can easily be modeled using different thresholds. However, a combination with existing tools such as using our method within a participatory GIS and scenario evaluations see Pullar and Lamb could be beneficial. In particular, the question remains as to how much detail will be needed in these models to provide a basis for strategic environmental planning on a large scale, while facilitating local restoration decisions.
The identified suitable multifunctional restoration and regeneration areas in Central Chile can be seen as a starting point for discussions with stakeholders and local people who would be impacted and required to motivate for restoration action if restoration were to proceed in Central Chile. Firstly, the spatial identification of suitable multifunctional hotspots for restoration could be a basis for identifying local stakeholders in villages within or adjacent to these hotspots.
This would help narrow the participatory process down to suitable and focal forest restoration areas. On the other hand, as the hotspots and corridors stretch across three administrative regions, it would be crucial to convene representatives from these regions to develop a joint regional strategy. The maps of different functions and the differently weighted scenarios could be used to discuss local and regional targets for carbon storage, biodiversity protection, and erosion control and could be used to visualize the spatial consequences of different weightings and thresholds according to national policy and regional development goals.
Whereas in many places forest restoration might conflict with intensive land use, the identified forest restoration areas in Central Chile are only to a very minor extent 0. Shrubland and bareland are the main land cover types within identified restoration areas. Therefore, the identification of multifunctional hotspots in combination with regeneration potential might facilitate a zonation for the removal and extensification of grazing on a large scale for the generation of multiple benefits fostered by carbon sequestration compensations.
As the carbon sequestration function can be rapidly valued as a service and beneficiaries can be exactly localized to the place of sequestration, this could generate funding especially for the functions that are rather difficult to valuate, such as biodiversity. These could be fostered without their explicit valuation; especially, habitat function and hence the enhancement of biodiversity, as well as erosion prevention and nutrient retention, which in the long term enhance the capacity of ecosystems to establish and remain, could largely benefit if carbon sequestration projects would be directed toward the restoration of areas of potential multiple functions.
The inclusion of corridors as a means to account for biodiversity conservation could play an important role as an integrative structural component for framing multifunctional restoration planning due to its characteristic of operating in rather linear networks potentially over larger scales.
Here, strategies inherent in the Forest Landscape Restoration approach, such as stimulating agroforestry within corridors in a combined mosaic with dense shrublands, could be beneficial for enhancing biodiversity and the resilience of the forest landscape to cope with environmental change. In Forest Landscape Restoration, the critical need is determining the proper balance between recreating past conditions and attempting to direct landscapes and ecosystems toward compositional, structural, and functional conditions that are better suited for future environments Crow We developed and tested an approach that facilitates the balancing of past and functional conditions.
Further research could improve our approach by including climate change scenarios, which could be integrated as another suitability scenario in combination with multifunctional hotspots. However, associated uncertainties regarding climate predictions and the response of ecosystems would remain.
We suggest that we should develop strategies to achieve complementarity regarding historical, future, and functional targets. Our study contains a starting point, which might help to localize areas for different types of strategies. In any case, it will be necessary to extend our approach including a wider range of potential functions of forest and other woodland types. While the Forest Landscape Restoration literature places much emphasis on participatory planning considering the improvement of local livelihoods and the empowerment of potential beneficiaries as actors for restoration e.
This remains a critical task for estimating and optimizing the benefits, that is, services that multifunctional Forest Landscape Restoration might attain. Moreover, ecosystems contain numerous functions that are crucial for their own maintenance. With this study, we demonstrate that an integrative assessment of recent historical forest patterns with multiple forest functions can be useful for supporting decision making, as often conflicting goals can be disentangled and spatial consequences of different decisions can be easily modeled and visualized. Our approach is well suited to supplement national and subnational approaches, such as the Restoration Opportunities Assessment Methodology ROAM; IUCN and WRI , specifically facilitating the spatial identification of suitable multifunctional restoration and regeneration hotspots, as a potential way to identify restoration priorities.
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This might provide an important bridge from a static view of historical reference conditions toward accounting for recent historical dynamics of ecosystems in light of ongoing environmental change. Also, we thank the Potsdam Graduate School for the financial support to present and discuss parts of this research at the IUFRO Landscape Ecology Conference in Concepcion, Chile, in and for financing the publication fee of this article.
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Finally, we would like to thank the very helpful comments and constructive suggestions provided by three anonymous reviewers. Please note: The publisher is not responsible for the content or functionality of any supporting information supplied by the authors. Any queries other than missing content should be directed to the corresponding author for the article.
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The agriculture-forest interface is the key to achieving global restoration goals
If the address matches an existing account you will receive an email with instructions to retrieve your username. Become a Member ESA. Ecosphere Volume 8, Issue 1. Article Open Access. Corresponding Editor: Charles Kwit. Tools Request permission Export citation Add to favorites Track citation. Share Give access Share full text access. Share full text access. Please review our Terms and Conditions of Use and check box below to share full-text version of article. Figure 1 Open in figure viewer PowerPoint. Assessment of Forest Landscape Restoration areas To assess areas with potential for forest restoration, we followed the suggestion from Orsi and Geneletti to assess areas with feasibility for restoration in the first place.